Tomatoes are unpretentious plants that are easy to care for, but in order not to get small or diseased fruits, you will need to pay a little attention to the culture. The plant responds very well to regular watering and feeding, rewarding gardeners with a generous harvest. In this review, we will talk about the proper care of tomatoes after planting in open ground.
After choosing a variety and planting seedlings in a tomato garden, it is necessary to provide timely care, which consists in supplying the plant with nutrients and moisture. In addition to basic needs, there are others that have no less influence on the growing season. The intricacies of the work can be found in this article.
Tomatoes react in the same way to a lack and excess of moisture, so irrigation is carried out as the soil dries up. Before flowering, the frequency is 1 time per week, during the formation of fruits, watering is increased up to 2-3 times a week. In hot weather with high daytime temperature indicators, you will need to water the soil every other day or even daily (focus on the degree of dryness of the soil). The procedures should be carried out only in the early morning or late evening. Evening is preferable, since moisture will remain in the ground longer, which means that the plant will be more comfortable.
When arranging an irrigation system, preference should be given drip or underground version... Sprinkling moisturizes the tops, while increasing the risk of developing fungal diseases, in particular top rot. Irrigation can also be carried out at the root or along the grooves. For the prevention of diseases, it is recommended to add wood ash to the settled water. And when ovaries appear, ash powder is sprinkled around the bushes for better fruiting.
It is not recommended to use tap water for humidification. A settled and warmed-up well option is more suitable. The liquid rate for one bush is 8-10 liters.
Periodically, watering is combined with the introduction of foliar dressings. For this, mineral fertilizers are dissolved in the water used for irrigation. Thus, the time for both procedures is reduced.
Some gardeners underestimate the procedure for pinching tomatoes, believing that a branchy bush and a large number of shoots increase yields. Actually the plant does not have enough strength for all the ovaries, therefore, the fruits are often formed small or simply do not have time to ripen. The issue is solved by removing useless shoots. This should be done while they are still small (3-5 cm). If time is lost, and they have already gained growth, then it makes no sense to carry out pinching.
The procedure is carried out in early August. All stepchildren are removed from the bush, leaving 2-3 leaves above the fruits. Sometimes it becomes a pity to pick off the inflorescences, but this will be good for the ripening fruits (they will be much larger).
Another method of pinching involves removing excess shoots every 10 days. In this case, one of the options for the formation of a bush is selected: in one stem, in two or three. The choice is based on the variety.
The beds with tomatoes should be sprayed not only after the detection of insects, but also for prevention, since among the nightshade crops, tomatoes are the most vulnerable. How to sprinkle you ask?
At the planting stage, the roots of the seedlings are soaked in a solution of insecticides (for example, Aktara) to protect against wireworms, May beetles and aphids. Before the fruiting period, the beds are periodically treated with fungicidal preparations (Quadris, Ridomil Gold), which prevent the development of fungal diseases.
You can use folk remedies. Spraying the bushes with infusions of onion husks, wood ash, and garlic are considered quite effective. To scare away insects, decoctions from fragrant plants are suitable: pharmacy chamomile, wormwood, calendula, etc.
You need to feed tomatoes at least three times during the growing season. On nutrient-poor soils, this is done systematically every 2 weeks. Fertilizers are used both organic and mineral. The nitrogen content in them should be less than potassium and phosphorus. How much fertilizer should be added for processing? One of the options provides for the following composition:
If shedding of inflorescences and ovaries is observed, the plant lacks trace elements (boron). You can prepare a solution from boric acid (1 g) and water (1 L). Spray greens in the afternoon.
The culture also responds well to a solution of poultry manure. It is preferable to use complex fertilizers that contain trace elements such as magnesium, boron, copper, zinc. Popular remedies include: Master NPK-17.6.18, Kristallon et al.
After each watering, it is advisable to slightly loosen the soil (immersion depth is about 3 cm). This helps to retain moisture in the soil, opens up access to oxygen. The first loosening can be done after the first irrigation of the seedlings. The regularity of the procedures is 1 time in 10-14 days. When the bushes grow and the aisles narrow, the loosening can be stopped.
It is rational to combine the process of loosening with weeding. Weeds attract pests, create shading for tomatoes, so the fight against them is a priority.
To stimulate the formation of additional adventitious roots, it is recommended to hilling tomato bushes. They form from the bottom of the stem, but only in moist soil. Raking the soil under the plant should be several times per season. The first procedure is carried out 2-3 weeks after planting the seedlings. The second time hilling in the beds is performed after 2 weeks. In order not to injure the tomatoes once again, the event is combined with loosening and weeding.
It is necessary to form bushes only in those plants that are prone to branching. If the variety is characterized by the development of one stem, then there is no need for the procedure.
There are several ways to form bushes:
When deciding on an option, it is worth considering the characteristics of the variety and the climatic conditions of the region. The further south the area is, the more branches you can leave on the tomato. It is important to take into account that fruits that do not form on the main stem will be smaller.
When choosing the one-stem method all stepchildren who have reached a length of 3-5 cm are subject to removal. To prevent the tomato from dropping all flowers and ovaries, it is recommended to first cut off the shoots that have grown under the brushes.
If the tomato is formed into two stalks, then you need to leave the lateral shoot, which formed near the first brush. And when choosing the third method, it is recommended to leave the strongest stepson developing under the second hand.
You need to remove excess shoots regularly, the only limitation to the procedure is heat. In such conditions, the plant does not tolerate any injury.
Tear off the sprouts very carefully, grasping them with your thumb and forefinger. You need to pull not towards yourself, but sharply to the side. You can also use a knife with a sharp blade. When cutting the stepson, do not touch the main stem, it is better to leave 1-2 mm of the shoot to be removed.
Backfilling the soil with mulch makes it possible to reduce the number of watering, weeding and loosening. Such savings are simply necessary for summer residents visiting the plots exclusively on weekends. In addition to reducing the labor intensity of the process, protection of the soil from drying out is created.
The feasibility of mulching can be assessed based on the following advantages:
Peat, dry leaves or straw, sawdust are used as mulch. Rotted compost is also good. In the garden departments of hypermarkets today you can buy artificial mulch, which is reusable. The layer to be laid should be about 6-8 cm, so that light passes faintly through it. This will prevent overgrowth of weeds.
Surrounding the tomato garden with attention, it is worth observing the measure when watering and fertilizing, otherwise you can get the opposite effect. Experienced gardeners determine the needs of plants by their appearance, therefore 2-3 times a week you just need to inspect the bushes. Then any identified problem will be easier to localize or eliminate.
Tomato is a thermophilic crop that requires special growing conditions. In the climate of the middle zone and more northern regions, the vegetable is planted mainly in a greenhouse. However, thanks to breeding work, tomatoes have appeared that give a good harvest even in unprotected soil. It is important to choose seeds of a zoned variety for planting, then the crop will have time to ripen before frost, and the culture itself will withstand bad weather and various diseases.
When transplanting seedlings into open ground, the holes are watered abundantly, therefore, the plants do not need additional moisture for the next 1.5-2 weeks, it is enough for them.
In the future, you should only maintain the soil under the bushes in a moist state, watering it as it dries up until the beginning of fruit setting. But from this point on, tomatoes require more frequent watering so that the soil constantly has the same moisture content. Its drops can provoke the onset of diseases, a stop in the growth of green fruits, or a violation of the integrity of the shell of ripe tomatoes.
It is necessary to water the tomatoes in the evening, directing the water strictly to the root. Plants get sick from drops on the leaves.
When your plants have grown, it's time to do hilling along with loosening. Such treatment contributes to the fact that the roots of plants are not exposed, and also better conditions are created for the soil to warm up and the adventitious roots to germinate. The very first hilling should be done two to three weeks after planting the plant in the ground. The next one is two weeks later. You need to sprinkle with damp earth. You can also add humus soil as an alternative to plowing up the soil.
Greetings, dear friends!
The yield of tomatoes is influenced not only by the quality of grown or purchased seedlings, but also by competent planting in a permanent place in compliance with the basic rules of agrotechnology of nightshade crops. Depending on the weather conditions of the current spring, tomato seedlings are planted in open ground no later than the end of May. And tomato seedlings can be transferred to closed structures from the last days of April.
It is very important to carry out the correct caring for tomatoes after planting in a greenhouse or open area. I will talk about this below.
The area for tomatoes should be sunny, but at the same time protected from blowing winds and drafts. Very few tomatoes can grow in partial shade, such as the De Barao variety. The rest, however, require a full day of light not only for ripening fruits, but also to prevent the development of late blight - the main enemy of tomato plantations.
Planting nightshade crops in lowlands, flooded areas, in areas where groundwater passes close to the surface is unacceptable. The root system of tomatoes rots from the abundance of moisture, and the plants die. In this case, the way out of the situation can be the creation of high ridges (from 20 cm in height).
The best predecessors of tomatoes are any green manure plants (legumes, lupine, phacelia, rye, oats, spring rapeseed, white mustard, alfalfa, clover, etc.), cabbage, pumpkin (cucumbers, pumpkin, zucchini, squash), leafy greens. It is unacceptable to plant tomatoes after all crops of the Solanaceae family (potatoes, eggplant, pepper, tomato) due to the high risk of late blight, the fungi of which accumulate in the soil during cultivation from year to year.
A week before the transfer of tomato seedlings to the beds, they dig up or loosen the ground, adding plant ash or stove ash, as well as humus or matured garden compost. Fresh manure of farm animals and fresh bird droppings for nightshades are not covered because of the danger of burning the roots with active ammonia compounds of this type of organic matter.
Holes for tomatoes are dug to the depth of a shovel bayonet, spilling each seat 1/2 bucket of water. The distance between tomato bushes in a row depends on the variety of the crop. Low-growing tomatoes are planted every 0.4 m, and medium-sized, branchy, climbing and tall - 0.6 m. The distance between rows is about half a meter.
In order for the seedlings to take root as quickly as possible and not get sick, it is advisable to transfer each bush to the hole along with an earthen lump, just below the growth level in the cups. The most stable seedlings in this regard are those grown in peat pots, which are immersed in the hole as a whole, and then rotted in the ground, providing the seedlings with additional nutrients.
After planting, the beds with tomatoes should be watered well. Mulching with peat, garden compost, high-quality rotted mullein will not only prevent the evaporation of valuable moisture, but also delay the growth of weed crops, and upon decomposition will provide plants with additional nutrients
While the process of acclimatization of seedlings is in progress, it is better not to water (about 6-7 days), of course, if there is no drying heat outside. If, after planting tomato seedlings, there is a threat of recurrent frosts, then on open beds the seedlings need to be covered with a film. In greenhouses, it is also recommended to stretch an additional film layer.
The seedling requires regular loosening, weeding, watering, feeding and treatment against late blight.
7-8 days after planting the tomatoes in a permanent place, it is recommended to carry out the first feeding with a solution of ammonium nitrate or urea (a matchbox of fertilizer on a standard bucket of water). The intake of nitrogen substances at the first stages of the growing season contributes to the active growth of tops, strengthening of the stems and preparation for the beginning of abundant flowering.
During the budding period, in order to increase the yield, I recommend that you spray the bushes with a solution of the preparation "Ovary for Tomatoes".
Watering rate 3-4 liters for each bush. The frequency of watering increases during flowering and ovary formation. Tomatoes respond well to the introduction of wood ash simultaneously with loosening, and then abundant watering.
After 20 days from the moment the tomatoes are transplanted to the beds, the bushes are treated with a solution of copper sulfate (2%, that is, 20 grams of crystals per bucket of water) or any drug available against late blight. Re-treatment with copper sulfate in the same concentration is carried out after 14-15 days.
From biological compositions, gardeners use an infusion of garlic (tops or heads), a decoction of onion peels, a solution of iodine and whole milk, an ash infusion, and aqueous extracts of medicinal plants against phytophthora.
After the beginning of flowering, the bushes require additional nutrition. Tomatoes respond well to foliar feeding with a superphosphate solution (50 g / bucket of water). Of the root dressings, the infusion of mullein with ash with an interval of 2-3 weeks has proven itself most well.
A month after planting the seedlings, the hilling of the bushes is carried out, combined with loosening. Supports are installed under tall and medium-sized varieties. Active ventilation is required to be organized in closed structures during the flowering period of bushes for pollination of flower stalks. In calm weather, every day at noon, you should gently tap on the stems or supports of tomatoes growing in greenhouses for pollination.
Correctly conducted caring for tomatoes after planting will allow you to get bountiful tomato harvests in the coming season! See you, friends!
It has long been known that competent agricultural technology when caring for tomato plantings allows you to collect record crop yields, even in a rainy and short summer. Tomatoes growing in open beds are less protected from dangerous insects and phytopathogens, in contrast to seedlings that live in greenhouses and greenhouses, especially in adverse weather conditions, for example, during prolonged rains or during cloudy and cool summers. That is why they need careful care and regular seasonal procedures, including protection from diseases and pests.
Here is a list of the main activities that need to be performed in the first month of tomato growth and development:
• weed removal
• formation of bushes and pinching
• treatment with fungicidal solutions for the prevention of late blight and other diseases.
Experienced gardeners do not water the tomatoes in the first 10 days after planting the seedlings in a permanent place. The water introduced into the planting holes is quite enough for the plants for initial adaptation and rooting. In the absence of watering, the seedlings are forced to look for life-giving moisture, developing powerful roots that go deep into the soil.
Loosening and watering
After 10 days, when the bushes have taken root, and new leaf plates have appeared on them, they carry out weeding between rows and loosening the soil around each seedling. Watering plants with heated, settled water (without chlorine) is carried out in cases where there was no rain after planting.
In the future, the seedlings are watered every 5-7 days or installed in the plantings of drip irrigation systems. After protruding tubercles appear in the lower part of the stems, from which additional roots begin to grow in the future, it is advisable to spud the tomatoes.
Application of nitrogen fertilizers
One-time nitrogen fertilization, which promotes the rapid formation of the leaf apparatus and accelerates the onset of flowering, is performed on wet ground 10-12 days after planting on the beds. The procedure can be combined with the first loosening and watering.
Fans of organic farming, who do not use synthetic fertilizers in their gardens, use fermented herb infusion for the first feeding of tomatoes. It is prepared by insisting in a warm place non-seeded weeds and lawn grass (5 kg of vegetative mass) in water (10 l) for 12-14 days. The finished concentrate is diluted 1:10 with clean water and used for watering tomatoes at the root at the rate of 0.7 liters for each seedling.
In the absence of green fertilizer for the first feeding of tomatoes, summer residents use a solution of ammonia, sold in any pharmacy. Take 1 tablespoon of a ten percent ammonia solution to a bucket of water. The rate of top dressing is 1 liter for each tomato bush.
The next time the tomatoes are fertilized already at the stage of fruit ripening, using compounds containing potassium, phosphorus, calcium and trace elements (without nitrogen), for example, an ash infusion (a half-liter jar of sifted ash in a bucket of lukewarm water, leave for 3 days).
Grasshopping and formation of bushes for different varieties
Actively developing tomato bushes, especially after nitrogen feeding, are thrown out en masse by stepchildren. In order to avoid thickening of the crown of the bushes and the irrational consumption of nutrient juices, the processes that form in the axils of the leaves must be removed in a timely manner. When pinching, simultaneously with pinching or cutting off excess processes, the formation of bushes is carried out. During the procedure, all the lower leaf plates in contact with the soil surface are removed from the seedlings.
Tall tomatoes, which are not limited in growth, form 2-3 stems, leaving stepchildren on them, located directly under the first flower brush. All processes below the selected stepson are removed. Low-growing and standard crop varieties, as a rule, are grown in one stem, removing all stepchildren that appear during the growing season. However, on chernozems and highly fertile soils, many vegetable growers cultivate such tomatoes, like tall ones, in two stems.
Prevention of fungal diseases of culture
Tomatoes growing on open plantations are susceptible to the spread of a dangerous disease - late blight. An outbreak of infection most often begins in adverse weather conditions: high air humidity, sudden changes in night and day temperatures, prolonged rains, cool and little sunny summers.
To prevent the spread of fungal spores in plantings, tomatoes must be regularly treated with fungicidal solutions. Today, the most popular means among summer residents are microbiological preparations made on the basis of beneficial bacteria (genus Bacillus) or fungi (Trichoderma viride PERS.), Which suppress and inhibit the vital activity of pathogens of many fungal and bacterial diseases of cultivated plants.
In addition to antifungal and antibacterial properties, such products have stimulating properties, activating the processes of growth and assimilation of nutrients by plants, which leads to a significant increase in tomato productivity (up to 20%). They can be safely used at any time during the growing season of tomatoes, even during the ripening of vegetables, without fear of the accumulation of toxic substances in the soil and fruits.
Spraying the bushes every 10-12 days with solutions "Fitosporin-M", "Fito Doctor", "FitoHelp", "Baktofit", "Trichodermin", etc. allows you to minimize the risk of developing not only phytophthora, but also bacterial cancer, black leg, bacteriosis , root rot, brown spot and other diseases of nightshade vegetables. The first time the seedlings are processed 2 weeks after transplanting to the beds.
Among adherents of biological farming, a solution of milk and iodine is no less popular for the prevention of late blight in tomatoes. For its preparation, 0.5 l of skimmed sour milk and 2 ml of pharmacy alcoholic tincture of iodine (5%) are poured into 9 liters of water. Under each bush, 1 glass of milk-iodine solution is poured. Additionally, the plants are sprayed with the prepared product, not forgetting to irrigate the lower parts of the leaf plates. Frequency rate of application in wet weather - every 7 days, in hot and dry weather - once every 2 weeks.
Without additional support, the plants will not be able to bear fruit normally, since under the weight of the pouring fruits, especially in windy weather, the shoots will either break or lie on the ground. You should not wait for such a development of events - it is much easier to install supporting structures in advance on the beds with tomatoes.
Rapidly developing indeterminate (tall) tomatoes, already 2 weeks after planting on the beds, must be tied either to stakes or to twines and nets stretched over trellises. Low-growing bush tomatoes also need additional support, so they are tied to pegs of the appropriate height 3-4 weeks after planting the seedlings.
This is the list of activities that zealous gardeners must carry out on tomato beds, creating the most harmonious conditions for their plants. We wish you excellent tomato harvests this season!
For harvesting the grown crop, experienced gardeners use some secrets:
Gardeners love to grow tomatoes of different varieties on their plots, despite their susceptibility to diseases. If the care of the tomato plantings in the open field is organized correctly, all the fertilizing is made on time, the prevention of diseases is carried out, then the beds will surely please with a rich harvest of tasty and healthy fruits.